In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) How It Is Done, Success Rate, Risks
In vitro fertilization, or IVF, is the most common and effective type of assisted reproductive technology to help women become pregnant. It involves fertilizing the egg outside the body, in a lab dish, and then implanting it in the woman’s uterus. Let’s get to know the test tube baby and his chances of success.
By 2016, about 6.5 million babies were born using in vitro fertilization (IVF). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1.6 percent of babies born in the United States each year are delivered through assisted reproductive technology (ART).
Fast facts about in vitro fertilization (IVF) :
1 – In vitro fertilization (IVF) can help achieve pregnancy when other treatments haven’t worked.
2 – The process includes fertilization of an egg outside the body, and its implantation to continue the pregnancy.
Great success has been achieved. One percent of babies born in the United States are conceived through IVF.
3- There is a greater chance of multiple births using IVF.
4- IVF involves fertilization of the egg in a laboratory dish, then it is transferred to the woman’s uterus.
The difference between a natural pregnancy and an artificial pregnancy:
In a normal pregnancy, sperm penetrates a woman’s egg and fertilizes it inside her body after ovulation, when a mature egg is released from the ovaries. The fertilized egg then attaches to the uterine wall or uterus and begins to grow into a baby. This is known as a normal pregnancy. However, if natural or unassisted conception is not possible, then fertility treatment is an option.
While the artificial pregnancy is fertilization of the egg outside the body, in the laboratory, and then implanted in the uterus. Often, the chances of a IVF baby being successful are great.
Artificial insemination date:
IVF has been used since the late 1970s. On July 25, 1978, Louise Brown, the first “test tube baby”, was born. Then Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe, who collaborated on the procedure, are considered to be the pioneers of IVF.
In 2010, Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for “the development of in vitro fertilization.”
In July 2013, an American couple gave birth to their first child born through IVF as a result of next-generation DNA sequencing, a new method for screening embryos that improves IVF success rates and then significantly reduces the cost of treatment.
DNA sequencing technology helps doctors screen embryos created by IVF to determine which ones are most likely to result in successful fertilization and subsequent successful pregnancies.
1- Suppression of the natural menstrual cycle:
The woman receives medication, usually in the form of a daily injection for about two weeks, to suppress the natural menstrual cycle.
2- Stimulating egg production with hormonal therapy:
Fertility drugs that contain the fertility hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are given to the woman. FSH. Then, in turn, it causes the ovaries to produce more eggs than usual. A transvaginal ultrasound can monitor the process in the ovaries.
3- Egg retrieval (removal of eggs from the ovary):
The eggs are collected through a minor surgical procedure known as ‘follicular aspiration’. Where the woman is given a sedative so that she does not feel any pain or discomfort during the retrieval of the eggs. Then a very thin needle is inserted through the vagina into the ovary. The needle is connected to a suction device. This sucks the eggs. This process is repeated for each ovary.
In 2011, researchers suggested that collecting 15 eggs from an ovary in one cycle gives the greatest chance of a successful pregnancy.
4- Fertilization and fertilization:
The collected eggs are placed with male sperm and kept in an environmentally controlled chamber. After a few hours, the sperm should enter the egg.
Sometimes the sperm is injected directly into the egg. This is known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
Then frozen sperm, obtained through a testicular biopsy, can be used. This is believed to be as effective as fresh sperm in achieving successful pregnancy.
The fertilized egg divides and becomes an embryo. At this point, some centers offer preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) that can screen the fetus for genetic disorders. This is somewhat controversial and not always used.
One or two of the best embryos are selected for transfer.
The woman is then given progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to help the uterine lining to receive the fetus.
5- Embryo transfer:
Sometimes, more than one fetus is placed in the uterus. Then it is important that the doctor and the couple wishing to have a baby discuss how many embryos to transfer. Usually, the doctor transfers more than one embryo only if ideal embryos are not available.
The embryo is transferred using a thin tube or catheter. It then enters the uterus through the vagina. When the fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus, healthy fetal development can begin.
In vitro fertilization is ideal for women who have not been able to conceive through regular unprotected intercourse or after 12 cycles of IVF.
IVF can be an option if:
1 – Either partner has received a diagnosis of unexplained infertility
2 – Other techniques have not worked, such as the use of fertility drugs or intrauterine insemination (IUI)
3- Blockage of the fallopian tubes.
4- Older patients who wish to have a child.
5 – Polycystic ovaries.
6- Low ovarian reserve and premature ovarian failure.
What are the risks that may affect the success process?
1 – How long have you been trying to conceive?
2 – Then what is the cause of infertility?
3- Psychological stress.
Medication side effects:
IVF can cause difficulty sleeping.
Then some women may have reactions to the medicines given during treatment.
Possible side effects of IVF medications include:
1 – Vomiting and nausea .
2- Difficulty breathing.
4 – Hot flashes
5 – ovarian hypertrophy
6- Difficulty sleeping
7 – Abdominal pain
8 – bruises can also result from repeated daily injections.
Maternal health risks:
In rare cases, medications can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This occurs when the ovaries respond excessively to anti-gonadotropins, so that many eggs develop in the ovaries. This can result in severe abdominal distension and shortness of breath. If OHSS occurs, the doctor may suggest repeating the entire cycle with a lower dose of gonadotropin.
Research published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) has linked IVF with an increased risk of pulmonary embolism or blockage of the main lung artery and venous thromboembolism or blood clots during the first trimester of pregnancy.
The main cause of pregnancy loss, whether in IVF or in a natural pregnancy, is an abnormal number of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy. Detecting aneuploidy in the egg or sperm before IVF or in the fetus before implantation may help increase the chance of a successful pregnancy.
In 2013, scientists announced that they had developed a new technology called time-lapse imaging. This technique may increase the chances of selecting the right embryo for successful IVF, although more research is necessary.
Pregnancies with more than one fetus can lead to:
Premature birth or low birth weight
Hence, the mother’s risk of diabetes doubles
Significant increase in maternal blood pressure
The doctor may recommend that only one embryo transfer should be performed in women who are more likely to have twins. Then we found that the test tube baby and the chances of his success are great.